GENERAL URINE ANALYSIS
WHAT IS A URINE ANALYSIS?
Kidneys are infiltrating waste materials, metals, liquids, and other substances from blood to form urine. What you eat and drink, how much you exercise, and how well your kidneys work can affect your urine.
A urine test checks various components of urine. A urinalysis test can be done to help find the cause of your possible symptoms. The test can provide health information and problems that you may have.
WHAT ARE THE INSTRUCTIONS FOR PROPER COLLECTION OF URINE?
- Sample of the first morning urination.
- The sample must be checked in less than 1 hour. If this is not possible, the storage in a refrigerator is required.
- Thorough washing of external genital organs and urethra with warm water and soap. Rinse thoroughly and wipe with a clean towel or sterile gauze.
- Urine must be collected from the medial urine.
- Especially for urine culture collection must be done before receiving antibiotics.
WHAT DOES A GENERAN URINE ANALYSIS INCLUDE?
More than 100 different tests can be made in the urine.
A general urine analysis often includes the following tests:
Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet, medications and diseases. Some drugs, blackberries, beets or blood in the urine may turn the urine red-brown.
Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or mucus can make urine cloudy.
Urine does not smell very strongly, but have a slight odor of ammonia. Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor while diabetes or starvation can cause a sweet, fruity smell.
This controls the density of substances in the urine. It also indicates how well the kidneys condense the amount of water in the urine
The pH is a measure of how acidic or alkaline (basic) the urine is. This is important for diseases of the urinary tract such as stones and infections.
Protein is not normally found in urine. Fever, strenuous exercise, pregnancy and some diseases, especially renal disease, may cause protein in urine.
Glucose is a type of sugar found in the blood. Normally there is very little or no glucose in urine. When the level of blood sugar is very high, such as in diabetes, sugar diffuses urine. Glucose can also be found in the urine in kidney failure.
The bacteria that cause urinary tract infection (UTI) produce an enzyme that changes the nitrate to nitrite. Nitrite in urine indicates that a urinary tract infection is present.
Esterase leukocytes (WBC esterase).
Leukocyte esterase shows leukocytes [WBCs) in urine. White blood cells in urine may mean that a urinary tract infection is present.
Large amounts of ketones in the urine may mean that a very serious condition, diabetic ketoacidosis is present. A diet low in sugars and carbohydrates, hunger, severe vomiting may also increase urine ketones.
In this test, urine rotate in a special machine. Thus the solid material (sediment) settle to the bottom. The sediment is spread on a slide and checked under a microscope. The things that can be seen on the slide include:
- Red or white blood cells. Red blood cells are not found in urine normally. Inflammation, disease, or damage to the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra can cause blood in urine. Vigorous exercise, such as running a marathon, can also cause blood in the urine. The white blood cells may be a sign of infection or kidney disease.
- Cylinders. Some types of kidney disease can cause plugs of material (called templates) in small tubes in the kidney. Cylinders can be created from red or white blood cells, waxy or fatty substances, or protein.
- Crystals. Healthy people often have only a few crystals in their urine. A large number of crystals, or certain types of crystals, may indicate kidney stones.
- Bacteria, fungi or parasites. There are bacteria, fungi or parasites in urine normally. If they are, this could mean that you have an infection.
- Squamous cells. The presence of squamous cells may indicate that the sample is not as clean as need to be. These cells do not mean that there is a medical problem, but your doctor may ask you to provide another urine sample.