UROLITHIASIS AND NUTRITION
HOW NUTRITION AFFECTS THE RISK OF OCCURRENCE OF NEFROLITHIASIS?
Nutrition is one of many factors that can promote or inhibit the formation of kidney stones.
Other factors include heredity, environment, weight, and fluid intake.
The body uses food for energy and tissue repair. After the body uses that need, some products are transported to the kidneys and excreted in urine. Certain foods generate waste that may form crystals in the urinary tract. In some people, the crystals grow on stones .
In addition to dietary changes, a person may need medication for the prevention of kidney stones. The first step to prevent kidney stones is to find out what kind of stones a person usually does.
HOW MUCH FLUIDS SHOULD ONE PERSON RECEIVE FOR PREVENTION OF NEFROLITHIASIS?
The amount of fluids, a person should drink depends on the weather and the person's activity level. People who have had a kidney stone should drink enough water and other fluids to produce at least 2 liters of urine a day . The doctor may advise the patient about the increased fluid intake if necessary. People working or exercised in hot climates need more fluids to replace the fluids lost through sweat. Drinking enough water helps maintain urine dilute and wash away the materials that could form stones.
WHAT FLUIDS SHOULD I PREFER?
- The water is an inexpensive and zero calorie liquid suitable for the protection of kidney stones.
- Some studies show that Citrus beverages such as orange juice and lemonade protect against stones since citrate-containing salt, which stops the growth of crystals on stones.
- Moderate consumption of beer and wine, coffee and tea in moderation can also protect against the formation of stones.
WHAT FLUIDS TO AVOID?
- The grapefruit juice and black cola drinks have been found to increase the risk of stone formation and should be avoided by people who are prone to the formation of calcium oxalate stones.
- Although the berry juice is often promoted to prevent urinary tract infections containing oxalate and may cause crystals.
WHAT ABOUT SALT?
The salt consists of sodium chloride, and when it is excreted by the kidneys, causes more calcium excretion in urine. High concentrations of calcium in the urine is associated with formation of oxalate and phosphate stones. The reduction of salt intake is very important.
How can a person reduce sodium intake?
Learning the sodium content of foods can help people to control sodium intake. Food labels provide information about the concentration of sodium and other nutrients.Keeping a sodium diary can help a person to keep sodium intake at 2.400 mg. When you eat out, you should ask about the sodium content of the food you order.
Foods that contain high levels of sodium include:
- Canned soups and vegetables.
- Processed, frozen food.
- Canned meats.
- Fast food.
WHAT ABOUT MEAT?
Meat and other animal proteins, such as eggs and fish contain purines, which are converted to uric acid in urine. People who create uric acid stones should limit the consumption of meat every day.
Animal proteins also promote calcium oxalate stones by reducing urinary citrate.
DOES MILK AFFECT THE CALCIUM STONES CREATION;
Calcium from food does not particularly increase the risk of formation of calcium oxalate stones. Reduced daily calcium intake in the form of milk products may promote calcium oxalate lithiasis.
For this reason it is recommended that normal intake of calcium daily unless your doctor advises otherwise.
WHAT FOODS TO AVOID FOR THE PREVENTION OF CALCIUM OXALATE STONES;
Many foods and drinks contain oxalates, but only a few have been shown to increase the amount of oxalate in the urine:
Avoiding these foods may help reduce the amount of oxalate in the urine. Consumption of foods containing calcium also reduces the amount of oxalate in the urine as calcium binds oxalate in the digestive system and is not excreted in urine.
THE INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL?
Despite the fact that alcohol consumption can promote the production of purines in the body, studies have shown no more stones in people who drink beer and wine in moderation.