HOW OFTEN IS KIDNEY CANCER?
Kidney cancer is the third, in order of frequency, malignancy of the urinary tract.
WHEN IS KIDNEY CANCER MORE OFTEN?
It occurs more often in men, usually in the sixth and seventh decade of life.
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS?
The main factors that increase the likelihood result of kidney cancer is:
Smokers are at higher risk of developing kidney cancer than nonsmokers. This risk depends on the number of cigarettes and the time someone is smoking.
Obesity is the second risk factor of frequency for kidney cancer
High blood pressure.
Uncontrolled hypertension is some times associated with the development of kidney cancer.
Family history of kidney cancer.
People who have first-degree relative with kidney cancer face a slightly increased risk of developing the disease.
Factors such as diet are investigated for the relationship with the disease. Dialysis appears to increase the risk.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE?
In modern times we live , the diagnosis of kidney cancer is usually made before symptoms. This is because the diagnosis is made usually with an ultrasound(US) or CT / MRI ( CT / MRI) done for another reason.
The major symptoms that can occur is:
- Hematuria (blood in urine).
- The pain in the lumbar region.
- Palpable abdominal mass.
- Sudden and unexplained weight loss may be associated with weakness and fever that can not be attributed to other causes.
HOW IS THE DIAGNOSIS MADE?
The diagnosis of kidney cancer is initially made with ultrasound (US) and confirmed by the compute tomography (CT) .
A biopsy is not necessary and is indicated only in selected situations.
Chest CT should be done to search for metastases in the lungs.
WHAT IS THE TREATMENT?
Treatment depends on the tumor size, stage of the disease and the general state of the patient.
Treatment of choice is surgery . This may involve partial or total removal of the kidney depending on the tumor size. The removal can be done with open surgery, laparoscopic or robotic method. Each method has its own indications and complications.
Kidney cancer is resistant to radiation and chemotherapy.
In metastatic patients immunotherapy with targeted therapy is an important achievement in recent years.
WHAT IS THE PROGNOSIS OF THE KIDNEY CANCER?
If kidney cancer is localized in the kidney at diagnosis then nephrectomy offers excellent prognosis . Otherwise the prognosis depends on the stage of the disease and metastatic load as of course the general state of the patient.