WHAT IS BLADDER CANCER?
Bladder cancer is a cancer that starts in the bladder, an organ in the pelvic area that stores urine. Cancer of the bladder
usually begins in cells in the interior of the bladder. affects usually older adults , but can occur at any age.
The vast majority of bladder cancers are diagnosed at an early stage when the bladder cancer is highly curable.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS?
Symptoms of bladder cancer can be:
- Blood in the urine (hematuria) urine can appear red but the blood may not be seen and detected only from a microscopic examination of urine.
- Frequent urination
- painful urination
- Back pain
- pelvic pain
WHEN SHALL I VISIT MY DOCTOR?
Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you, such as blood in the urine .
ARE THERE DIFFERENT TYPES OF BLADDER CANCER?
Different types of cells in the bladder can become cancerous.
Common types of bladder cancer are:
- Transitional cell carcinoma.
- Squamous cell carcinoma.
- Some cancers of the bladder include more than one cell type.
WHAT FACTORS INCREASE RISK FOR CANCER OF THE URINARY BLADDER?
- Smoking. It is the most important risk factor. Smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes may increase the risk of bladder cancer, since harmful chemicals accumulate in your urine. When you smoke, your body processes the chemicals in smoke and some of these end up in your urine. These harmful chemicals can damage the bladder and increase the risk of cancer.
The risk of bladder cancer increases with age. Bladder cancer can occur at any age but is rare in people under 40 years.
Men are more likely to develop bladder cancer than women.
• Exposure to certain chemicals.
Chemicals associated with the risk of bladder cancer include arsenic and chemicals used for the manufacture of paint, rubber, leather, textiles and paint products.
Treatment with cyclophosphamide drug (Cytoxan) increases the risk of bladder cancer.
People who received radiation treatments for cancer may be at increased risk of developing bladder cancer.
• Chronic bladder inflammation.
Chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections or inflammation (cystitis), as can occur with long-term use of a urinary catheter, may increase the risk of cancer of the bladder (squamous cel)l. In some regions, carcinoma from squamous cells is associated with chronic inflammation of the bladder caused by parasitic infection known as schistosomiasis .
• Personal or family history of cancer.
If you have bladder cancer, you are more likely to relapse. If one or more of your first-degree relatives have a history of bladder cancer, you may have an increased risk of the disease, although it is rare for bladder cancer to be hereditary. Because of this, the survivors of bladder cancer often undergo in surveillance with cystoscopy for years after the initial treatment.
WHAT IS THE SURVEILANCE PROGRAM AFTER TREATMENT?
In general, doctors recommend a cystoscopy every 3-6 months for the first few years after treatment of bladder cancer. It can then be undergoing cystoscopy every year. Your doctor may recommend other tests at various intervals.
People with aggressive cancer may need to undergo more frequent testing.
WHAT TESTS WILL I NEED TO DO?
Tests used for the diagnosis of bladder cancer may include:
During cystoscopy, your doctor inserts a narrow tube (cystoscope) through your urethra. The cystoscope has a lens and lighting, which allows your doctor to see the inside of the urethra and your bladder. Usually you receive a local anesthetic during cystoscopy to help you feel comfortable.
During cystoscopy, your doctor may pass a special tool into your bladder to collect a sample of cells (biopsy) for testing. This procedure is sometimes called transurethral resection (TUR) . TUR is usually done under general anesthesia.
• Cytological examination of urine.
A sample of your urine is analyzed under a microscope to check for cancer cells.
• Imaging tests.
Imaging tests allow your doctor to examine the urinary tract structures. These include:
- Ultrasound .
- Intravenous pyelography.
- CT pyelography.
WHAT TYPES OF SURGICAL INTERFERENCE ARE THERE?
The type of surgery chosen depends on the bladder cancer stage, the state of your general health and your own preferences.
Surgery for bladder cancer at an early stage.
Transurethral resection (TUR) is used to remove bladder cancers confined to the inner layers of the bladder. During TUR, the doctor passes a small loop through a cystoscope-resektoskope to the urinary bladder. The bracket is used to burn the tumor cells with electric current and take biopsies.
Surgery for invasive bladder cancer.
Required surgery to remove the entire bladder. Immediately after radical cystectomy, the Urologist works to create a new way to pass urine. There are several options. What is the best option for you depends on your situation and your preferences.
WHAT OTHER TYPES OF TREATMENT ARE THERE?
There are many types of treatment for bladder cancer which your doctor will advise you after surgery. Such are:
- Immunotherapy as intravesical therapy.
- Intravesical chemotherapy treatment and systemic treatment.
ARE THERE ANY PREVENTION MEASURES?
Although there is no guaranteed way to prevent bladder cancer, you can take steps to help reduce the risk:
• Do not smoke.
If you smoke, talk to your doctor about a plan to help you quit smoking.
• Be careful with chemicals.
If you work with chemicals, follow all safety instructions to avoid exposure.
• Drink water throughout the day.
In theory water can dilute toxic substances can be concentrated in your urine.
• Fruits and vegetables.
Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. The antioxidants in fruits and vegetables can help reduce the risk of cancer.