Penile cancer is a malignant tumor of the skin or the tissues of the penis. About 95% of penile cancers are squamous cell carcinomas of. Other types of penile cancer is generally rare like small cell carcinoma, melanoma and others.
Cancer of the penis is rare in men under the age of 50. About 4/5 of men diagnosed with penile cancer are over the age of 55.
WHAT IS THE FREQUENCY OF THE PENILE CANCER?
The penile cancer is a rare form of cancer in developed countries, with an annual incidence ranging from 0.3 to 1 per 100,000 people and accounts for about 0.4-0.6% of all malignancies.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF PENILE CANCER ?
Possible images which can be displayed are:
- Redness of the penis.
- Rash on the penis.
- Pain in the penis.
- Ulcer in the penis.
- Bleeding in the penis or under the foreskin.
- Change of the color of the penis.
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS OF PENILE CANCER?
- The human papilloma virus HPV is a risk factor for penile cancer. According to Disease Control and Prevention Center, HPV is responsible for about 40% of penile cancer cases diagnosed annually. About half of men with penile cancer also have genital warts, which are caused by HPV.
- Poor hygiene can increase the risk of penile cancer.
- Balanitis and penile injuries.
- Phimosis . It is considered a major risk factor for the development of cancer of the penis.
- Lichen sclerosus . A disease that causes white spots on the skin.
WHAT ARE THE PREVENTION MEASURES OF PENILE CANCER?
- HPV vaccines as Gardasil or Cervarix may reduce the risk of HPV, and therefore, the risk of cancer of the penis.
- Condom use is thought to be protective against HPV-related penile cancer.
- Good hygiene ,washing the penis, the scrotum and foreskin daily with water ,avoiding soaps with hard materials.
- Quitting smoking can reduce the risk of penile cancer.
- The circumcision during infancy or childhood may provide some protection against penile cancer.
WHAT IS THE TREATMENT OF PENILE CANCER?
There are several treatment options for penile cancer, depending on the staging of the tumor. They include surgery, surgical removal of the lymph nodes, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy.
The most common treatment is one of the five types of surgery:
- Wide local excision-the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue boundaries are removed.
- Microsurgical operation performed with a microscope.
- Laser surgery.
- Amputation or total removal of the penis.
WHAT IS THE PROGNOSIS?
The penile cancer is now considered curable in 85%.
In general, as sooner as cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis is