Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine , which may seem like red urine (macroscopic hematuria) or be seen only in urine analysis (microscopic hematuria).
Which are the most common causes?
Although there are many possible causes for blood in the urine, the most common are:
- Bladder infection.
- Bladder cancer.
- Cancer of the kidney.
- Prostate cancer.
- Kidney stones or bladder.
- Inflammation of the kidneys (nephritis).
- Injury of the urinary tract.
- Blood diseases(e.g., sickle cell anemia, clotting disorders, anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs).
- Some medications (eg, rifampicin, nitrofurantoin) may stain the urine red and mimic blood in the urine.
- Food (e.g. beets) and dyes can stain the urine red and mimic blood in urine.
- Other rare causes, including less frequent infections (tuberculosis, schistosomiasis).
WHAT SHOULD I DO IF I HAVE BLOOD IN MY URINE?
If you see blood in your urine, with or without cystitis symptoms, you should immediately contact your doctor for further advice.
WHAT IS THE INVESTIGATION TO BE MADE?
- A complete history.
- A physical examination.
- Laboratory and imaging tests such as:
- Blood tests.
- The examination of urine for cancer cells.
- Simple pyelography or CT.
- Flexible cystoscopy.